ANSI Checklist Requirements for Forklifts
ITSDF/ANSI B56.1 Standards
AS THEY RELATE TO ROUTINE DAILY CHECKS AND MAINTENANCE
COPIED FROM THE ITSDF WEB SITE
ITSDF/ANSI B56.1 2012 PART II—FOR THE USER
There is a mandated OSHA Regulation that requires a pre-shift examination of the lift truck. It does require completion of a check-off but does not specify who is to complete the assessment. Note the subsequent ITSDF Standards that follow the pre-shift check off concerning use of truck and planned maintenance schedules. Documentation should be a part of a truck inspection and maintenance program.
Routine daily checks
5.5 Operator Care of the Truck
5.5.1 At the beginning of each shift and before operating the truck, check its condition, giving special attention to the following:
(a) condition of tires
5.5.2 If during operation the truck becomes unsafe in any way, the matter shall be reported immediately to the user’s designated authority, and the truck shall not be operated until it has been restored to safe operating condition.
If a deficient item arises and that deficiency affects safety, the truck MUST be removed from service until repaired or corrected.
5.5.3 Do not make repairs or adjustments unless specifically authorized to do so.
TEA applies – No one can service or repair a PIT unless they have been Trained, Evaluated, and Authorized. Training must be commensurate with the level of repair being performed. This includes any servicing procedures performed by operators during a routine daily check.
Routine and planned maintenance
Operation of powered industrial trucks may be hazardous if maintenance is neglected or repairs, rebuilds, or adjustments are not performed in accordance with the manufacturer’s design criteria. Therefore, maintenance facilities (on or off premises), trained personnel, and detailed procedures shall be provided.
6.1.1 Parts manuals and maintenance manuals may be obtained from the truck manufacturer.
6.1.2 In unusual cases not covered by the manuals referred to in para. 6.1.1, consult the truck manufacturer.
6.2 Maintenance and Inspection
Maintenance and inspection of all powered industrial trucks shall be performed in conformance with the following practices.
(a) A scheduled planned maintenance, lubrication, and inspection system shall be followed; consult the manufacturer’s recommendations.
(b) Only trained and authorized personnel shall be permitted to maintain, repair, adjust, and inspect industrial trucks, and in accordance with manufacturer’s specifications.
6.2.1 When lifting trucks for repair or inspection, trucks shall be lifted in a safe, secure, stable manner. Removal of components such as counterweights or uprights will change the center of gravity and may create an unstable condition.
6.2.2 Before starting inspection and repair of truck
(a) raise drive wheels free of floor or disconnect battery and use chocks or other positive truck-positioning devices.
(b) block load-engaging means, innermast(s), or chassis before working on them.
(c) before disconnecting any part of the engine fuel system of gasoline-powered trucks with gravity feed fuel systems, take precaution to eliminate any possibility of unintentional fuel escape.
(d) before disconnecting any part of the engine fuel system of LP gas-powered trucks, close LP tank valve and run engine until fuel in system is depleted and engine stops. If the engine will not run, close LP tank valve and vent fuel slowly in a nonhazardous area.
(e) disconnect battery before working on the electrical system.
(f) the charger connector shall be plugged only into the battery connector and never into the truck connector.
6.2.3 Operation of the truck to check performance shall be conducted in an authorized area where safe clearance exists.
(a) Before starting to operate the truck
(1) be in operating position
(2) disengage clutch on manual transmission equipped trucks, or apply brake on power shift or automatic transmission-equipped trucks and electric trucks
(3) place directional controls in neutral
(4) start engine or turn switch of electric trucks to “ON” position
(5) check functioning of lift and tilt systems, load engaging means, steering, warning devices, and brakes
(b) Before leaving the truck:
(1) stop truck
(2) fully lower the load-engaging means
(3) place directional controls in neutral
(4) apply the parking brake
(5) stop the engine or turn off power
(6) turn off the control or ignition circuit
(7) if the truck must be left on an incline, block the wheels
6.2.4 Avoid fire hazards and have fire protection equipment present in the work area. Do not use an open flame to check the level or to check for leakage of any fluid, especially fuel and battery electrolyte. Do not use open pans of fuel or flammable cleaning fluids for cleaning parts.
6.2.5 Properly ventilate work area and vent exhaust fumes.
(a) The exhaust from all internal combustion power lift truck engines contains carbon monoxide, a colorless, odorless, tasteless, poisonous gas. Carbon monoxide can become concentrated in poorly ventilated maintenance areas. Exposure to carbon monoxide can result in serious injuries or health hazards, including death.
(b) Common symptoms of carbon monoxide exposure may include headaches, dizziness, and nausea. The smell of internal combustion engine exhaust means carbon monoxide could be present.
(c) If maintenance personnel experience these symptoms, move them into fresh air, seek medical attention as required, and contact your employer so he can monitor “threshold limit values.” (Consideration should be given to shutting off the internal combustion engine.)
(d) Maintenance levels affect carbon monoxide emissions. Follow manufacturers’ maintenance and adjustment procedures. (See para. 7.2.4.)
6.2.6 Handle LP gas cylinders with care. Physical damage such as dents, scrapes, or gouges may dangerously weaken the tank and make it unsafe for use.
6.2.7 Brakes, steering mechanisms, control mechanisms, warning devices, lights, governors, lift overload devices, guards and safety devices, lift and tilt mechanisms, articulating axle stops, and frame members shall be carefully and regularly inspected and maintained in safe operating condition.
6.2.8 Inspection and Repair of Forks in Service on Fork Lift Trucks
(a) Forks in use shall be inspected at intervals of not more than 12 months (for single shift operations) or whenever any defect or permanent deformation is detected. Severe applications will require more frequent inspection.
(b) Individual Load Rating of Forks.
When forks are used in pairs (the normal arrangement), the rated capacity of each fork shall be at least half of the manufacturer’s rated capacity of the truck, and at the rated load center distance shown on the lift truck nameplate.
Fork inspection shall be carried out carefully by trained personnel with the aim of detecting any damage, failure, deformation, etc., which might impair safe use. Any fork that shows such a defect shall be withdrawn from service, and shall not be returned to service unless it has been satisfactorily repaired in accordance with para.
(a) Surface Cracks. The fork shall be thoroughly examined visually for cracks and if considered necessary, subjected to a nondestructive crack detection process, special attention being paid to the heel and welds attaching all mounting components to the fork blank. This inspection for cracks must also include any special mounting mechanisms of the fork blank to the fork carrier including bolt-type mountings and forged upper mounting arrangements for hook or shaft-type carriages. The forks shall not be returned to service if surface cracks are detected.
(b) Straightness of Blade and Shank. The straightness of the upper face of the blade and the front face of the shank shall be checked. If the deviation from straightness exceeds 0.5% of the length of the blade and/ or the height of the shank, respectively, the fork shall not be returned to service until it has been repaired in accordance with para. 126.96.36.199.
(c) Fork Angle (Upper Face of Blade to Load Face of the Shank). Any fork that has a deviation of greater than 3 deg from the original specification shall not be returned to service. The rejected fork shall be reset and tested in accordance with para. 188.8.131.52.
(d) Difference in Height of Fork Tips. The difference in height of one set of forks when mounted on the fork carrier shall be checked. If the difference in tip heights exceeds 3% of the length of the blade, the set of forks shall not be returned to service until repaired in accordance with para. 184.108.40.206.
(e) Positioning Lock (When Originally Provided). It shall be confirmed that the positioning lock is in good repair and correct working order. If any fault is found, the fork shall be withdrawn from service until satisfactory repairs have been effected.
(1) Fork Blade and Shank. The fork blade and shank shall be thoroughly checked for wear, special attention being paid to the vicinity of the heel. If the thickness is reduced to 90% of the original thickness, the fork shall not be returned to service.
(2) Fork Hooks (When Originally Provided). The support face of the top hook and the retaining faces of both hooks shall be checked for wear, crushing, and other local deformations. If these are apparent to such an extent that the clearance between the fork and the fork carrier becomes excessive, the fork shall not be returned to service until repaired in accordance with para. 220.127.116.11.(g)
Legibility of Marking (When Originally Provided).
If the fork marking in accordance with para. 7.27.2 is not clearly legible, it shall be renewed. Marking shall be renewed per instructions from original supplier.
18.104.22.168 Repair and Testing
(a) Repair. Only the manufacturer of the fork or an expert of equal competence shall decide if a fork may be repaired for continued use, and the repairs shall only be carried out by such parties. It is not recommended that surface cracks or wear be repaired by welding. When repairs necessitating resetting are required, the fork shall subsequently be subjected to an appropriate heat treatment, as necessary.
(b) Test Loading. A fork that has undergone repairs other than repair or replacement of the positioning lock and/or the marking, shall only be returned to service after being submitted to, and passing, the tests described in para. 7.27.3, except that the test load shall correspond to 2.5 times the rated capacity marked on the fork.
Hazardous Rating and maintenance
6.2.9 Special trucks or devices designed and approved for hazardous area operation shall receive special attention to ensure that maintenance preserves the original, approved safe operating features.
If a PIT is rated by a recognized testing laboratory, such as UL, it must be maintained to assure the rating is not compromised. That is, an “EE” rated truck must use repair components applicable to original EE requirements. It is NOT ADVISABLE to use any part on a rated truck supplied by anyone other than the OEM approved part to assure preservation of the applicable rating. UL has approved the PIT based on OEM components. If any part or procedure compromises a rating, the PIT will loose the entire rating afforded by UL.
6.2.10 Fuel systems shall be checked for leaks and condition of parts. Extra special consideration shall be given in the case of a leak in the fuel system. Action shall be taken to prevent the use of the truck until the leak has been corrected.
6.2.11 All hydraulic systems shall be regularly inspected and maintained in conformance with good practice. Hydraulic cylinders, valves, hoses, fittings, and other hydraulic components shall be checked to ensure that drift or leakage has not developed to the extent that it would create a hazard.
6.2.12 The truck manufacturer’s capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be maintained in legible condition.
Review all data plates for proper information. Replace any missing or damaged warning decals.
6.2.13 Batteries, motors, controllers, limit switches, protective devices, electrical conductors, and connections shall be inspected and maintained in conformance with good practice. Special attention shall be paid to the condition of electrical insulation.
6.2.14 To avoid injury to personnel or damage to equipment, follow the connector manufacturer’s procedures when replacing the contacts in any battery connector.
6.2.15 Trucks shall be kept in a clean condition to minimize fire hazards and facilitate detection of loose or defective parts.
6.2.16 Modifications and additions that affect capacity and safe truck operation shall not be performed without manufacturer’s prior written approval. Capacity, operation, and maintenance instruction plates, tags, or decals shall be changed accordingly.
6.2.17 Care shall be taken to ensure that all replacement parts, including tires, are interchangeable with the original parts and of a quality at least equal to that provided in the original equipment. Parts, including tires, are to be installed per manufacturer’s procedures.
Who determines the after-market part’s quality is equal to the quality of an OEM part?
6.2.18 When removing tires, follow industry safety practices. Most importantly, deflate pneumatic tires completely prior to removal. Following assembly of tires and rims, use a safety cage or restraining device while inflating.
6.2.19 When changing batteries on battery-electric trucks, replacement batteries shall be of the service weight that falls within the minimum/maximum range specified on the truck nameplate by the truck manufacturer.
CHECKLIST DEVICES BY KEYTROLLER